Library and Information Center Management, 9th Edition

Published November 2017 by Libraries Unlimited


  • Barbara B. Moran


    Barbara B. Moran, PhD, is Louis Round Wilson Distinguished Professor at the School of Information and Library Science at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where she served as dean from 1990 to 1998. Her research interests focus on various aspects of management including leadership, organizational development, and career progression patterns. Moran is coauthor of five previous editions of Libraries Unlimited’s Library and Information Center Management textbook and is the author of numerous articles, book chapters, and three other books on various aspects of management and leadership.

  • Claudia J. Morner


    Claudia J. Morner, PhD, is dean/professor emerita at the University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH. She is also an adjunct faculty member at SLIS, Simmons College in Boston, MA, where she has taught management, library architecture, international and comparative librarianship, and academic libraries. She has consulted for both public and academic libraries both in the United States and internationally, served in a number of management positions, and held leadership positions in local and national library organizations. Morner coauthored the 8th edition of Libraries Unlimited’s Library and Information Center Management as well as many other publications and presentations.

Select a Chapter for Student Resources

  • Chapter 1

    Managing in Today's Libraries

  • Chapter 2

    The Evolution of Management Thought

  • Chapter 3

    Change: The Innovative Process


    Web Resources

  • Chapter 4

    Strategic Planning, Decision Making, and Policy

  • Chapter 5

    Planning and Maintaining Library Facilities

  • Chapter 6

    Marketing Information Services




      Read the materials and answer the questions to the best of your ability.



      Overview. Before undertaking a marketing campaign for an organization or one of its services, it’s useful to study the organization in order to understand it “in the round.” For marketing folks this means a market audit. This assignment will allow you to develop a specific case study and to attend to all the aspects that someone with marketing responsibility needs to know and understand. For this assignment you and a class colleague are to select an organization and to describe it from a marketing perspective. In the latter half of the class your team will be asked to act as consultants to the organization and to suggest a plan of action that will improve its market stance.

      Select an Organization. Your first task is to select an organization of interest to you and a teammate. It can be a library of any kind or another kind of information organization or service. If you are familiar with a different kind of organization or service provider. You can select a part of a larger organization (for example, the library within a corporation or a university or even a single department of a large library, e.g., the reference/instruction department in an academic library). It will be helpful for one of your team to have had some experience in the organization, either as a worker or as a frequent customer, but it isn’t necessary as long as one or both of you have (or have had in the past) the opportunity to observe it closely enough to answer most of the following guiding questions. Sometimes an organization will be pleased to cooperate with you in the interests of receiving detailed recommendations in return.

      Guiding Questions for Your Market Audit. Name the organization (or provide a pseudonym) and then answer as best you can the following relevant questions. Note these questions are to serve as indicators; they are not a definitive list but identify the areas you need to examine and describe. For example, the first question asks you to talk about the environment. The particular questions listed are to give some ideas about what aspects to select to describe in your organization’s environment. You will probably not be able to answer all of the questions asked — the questions are intended to stimulate your thinking. Do the best you can and be creative about how you might find information (other than, or in addition to, asking a manager or other employee directly).

      • What kind of an organization is it (e.g., profit or non-profit, library (specify type), government agency, corporation, independent business, etc.)? Is it part of a larger organization; if so, how would you characterize the larger organization? Are conditions surrounding your organization relatively stable or changing? If the latter, how fast are things changing? How does it affect the organization? Is your organization strongly impacted by technology, by shifts in the economy, by leadership changes? How politically sensitive is it? Does it have partners or other organizations with whom it is closely aligned?
      • Describe the users of the services and products offered by your organization in as many ways as you can (e.g., age, socio-economic status, professional field(s) or occupation(s), geographic location, ethnic culture(s), etc.)? If you think there is a mix of several different kinds of clients (and there usually is), describe each subgroup and estimate roughly the proportion of each subgroup to the total user population. Can you identify which group(s) is/are primary (that is, more important in some way, e.g., higher status, more influential on resource allocation, personally close)?
      • Products and Services. What products and services does your organization offer? Services might include such things as information provision, retrieval, consulting, provision of database services, circulating collection, reference collection, instruction, systems analysis, systems set up, trouble-shooting, web design, etc. Products might include publications, software, web portals (the latter is an example that is hard to categorize as either a product, a service, or a channel — perhaps it is a blend of all three. Which are the primary products and services and which are of lesser importance? How does the organization make it known what its offerings are? To what degree are these products and services standardized or tailored to meet specific needs of individuals or groups? Are the products or services “branded” in any way (that is, do they carry a distinctive name or logo or are they packaged in such a way that they are instantly recognizable as coming from the organization)? Note: The answers to the last three questions may and probably will vary for the different products and services.
      • Place in marketing terms is sometimes called “channel” because it refers to how and where products and services are delivered. Do clients come to one central location for service or are there different outlet locations? Do clients come in person to the organization (if so, what distances do they travel and how do they come (by car, on foot, by public transport)? Or are some services delivered directly to the client at their home or place of employment? Is there an Internet presence and if so, what level of interactivity is afforded through this channel? Do the products and services pass through an intermediary? Can they be delivered through the mail, telephone, email, instant messaging or fax services? Often an organization will have a mix of delivery systems and policies for different services. Describe the situation as best you can.
      • Price and Cost. Are products and services offered for a monetary price? If so, how flexible are the terms? Are there discounts or allowances? Do all customers pay the same amount? If products and services are not offered for a monetary price, what is the cost to the client to avail him/herself of the organization’s offerings? Consider both actual cost in terms of time and energy and also psychological costs.
      • What kinds of promotion does your organization provide? Promotion is sometimes categorized as direct selling, advertising (usually paid but sometimes as public service), sales promotion (incentives, discounts, special events), and publicity (e.g., public relations). How would you describe the mix of promotional activities that your organization undertakes? Are some products and services promoted more heavily than others? Are some groups of clients more targeted for promotional activities than others?
      • In service marketing, all the people who surround the delivery of a service have an impact. Describe the employees who interface with the clients — how are they dressed? What is their customary manner when interacting with customers? Other customers or intermediaries may also have an impact. Comment on the personal appearance and behavior of other customer groups or intermediaries.
      • This is a fancy word for the physical evidence surrounding the delivery of products or services. It includes the appearance of the building, its offices and public spaces, as well as brochures, signs, equipment, business cards and the like. Describe your impressions of these manifestations.
      • The delivery of services usually involves a number of steps which may provide evidence to customers on how to judge a service. Consider the degree to which the process of service delivery is visible. Is the service delivery process simple (few steps) or complex (requiring customer to follow a complicated and extensive series of action)? For many services, we talk about the “co-production” of the service, that is, the collaborative effort to produce the desired result of both the customer and the service provider. How involved is the customer in the delivery of the service? How much background knowledge is desirable for the customer to make the best use of services? How much training does he/she require to receive services?
      • Consider who (or what) might be considered a competitor to your organization. Competition can be looked at in a variety of ways — a similar organization or an organization that offers one or more similar services and/or products (e.g., the book collection and book-related programs of a library and the parallels in a bookstore), or an organization that offers a different way to accomplish an end (e.g., searching the Internet for information directly vs. asking a reference librarian for assistance).

      Format for this audit: Format is not important here. You can use a Q&A format, a series of bulleted points, an outline, or you can write a narrative; the latter is probably the more professional approach. I’m looking for approximately 5-7 pages in length but it can be more (roughly a half page for each bulleted point). Please include some comment on each of the ten topics listed above.


      Read the materials and answer the questions to the best of your ability.



      Four types of bonds can tie a customer to your organization. These are described below. For this assignment, select an organization, for example, a library or information center. Consider each of these bonds and the questions posed to help you understand retention strategies.

      1. Financial Bonds . The customer is tied primarily through financial incentives — lower costs for greater volume purchases or lower prices for customers who have been with organization for a long time. One example is a frequent flyer program as is any discount program or frequent user program that carries financial rewards. Are there any financial bonds you can think of for the organization of your choice that would help retain customers?
      2. Social Bonds . Long-term relationships are built through social and interpersonal connections. Customers are viewed as “clients,” not nameless faces, and as individuals whose needs and wants the organization tries to understand. Services are customized and the organization finds ways to stay in touch with its customers. Social bonds are common among professional service providers (lawyers, teachers, consultants) and among personal care providers (hairdressers, personal trainers, counselors). Social bonds may also be formed between customers, for example, user support groups for specific software or hardware users, book discussion groups in the library. What social bonding activities might/does your selected organization encourage?
      3. Customization Bonds . Two commonly used terms fit within the customization bonds approach: mass customization and customer intimacy . The former deals with the use of flexible processes and structures to provide varied and often individually customized products and services at the cost of standardized, mass-produced alternatives. The “my library” (or “my account”) webpage is one example. Customer intimacy involves knowing enough about the customer (perhaps through database tracking systems) to anticipate his/her needs and to supply them. An example might be desk delivery of a new book on a topic known to be of interest to a client. Another example is the use of tools like RefWorks and Instant Messaging. Can you think of others?
      4. Structural Bonds . Structural bonds are created by providing services to the client that are often designed into the service delivery system for the client. An example from the business world is Fed Ex; the company provides free computers to customers with stored addresses and shipping data, printed mailing labels, and a tracking system for packages. Can you think of structural connections for library clients or for clients of other information services?

      Write a summary of ways that the organization you selected ties its customers to it. What additional ways might you suggest for consideration? With the goal of building long-term relationships with customers, provide some commentary on what you think would work and what might not and why.


      Read the materials and answer the questions to the best of your ability.



      When a customer confronts a service failure, he or she can choose to take action or do nothing. Many customers are very passive about their dissatisfaction and say or do nothing but they will decide whether to continue to use the organization providing the service or not. Generally, those who take action are more apt to continue to use the organization’s services than those who do nothing (a reason why it’s good to encourage complaints).

      When a customer decides to take action, he/she may choose to complain to the provider, complain to family and friends, or complain to a third party. Four categories of response types have been identified:

      • Passives . These are the ones who do nothing. They often doubt the effectiveness of complaining and think the consequences aren’t worth the time and effort. Others have personal values or norms against complaining. Usually these folks are less alienated than the more extreme types described below.
      • Voicers . These customers actively complain to the service provider but usually not to third parties, and usually don’t switch providers. These customers are the organization’s best friends, in a way. Their complaints allow the service provider a second chance. This group believes complaining has social benefits and that the consequences of their complaining can be positive.
      • Irates . These customers complain to friends and relatives and usually switch providers. They may feel alienated and are definitely more angry with the provider than either of the first two. They are less likely to give the provider a second chance.
      • These customers have an above average propensity to complain on all dimensions. They will complain to the provider, tell others, and complain to third parties. They have an optimistic sense of the potential positive consequences of all types of complaint action. Sometimes they can become “terrorists,” that is, they may take extreme actions destructive of property and sometimes outside the law.

      When customers complain, they have high expectations of what will happen. They expect justice and fairness in handling their complaints in three ways. They will judge the response as to its

      1. outcome fairness — the outcome or compensation should fit the level of their dissatisfaction, i.e., money, an apology, future free services, reduced charges, repairs, and/or replacements
      2. procedural fairness — customers want easy access to the complaint process and want it handled quickly preferably by the first person they encounter. They want procedures characterized by clarity, speed, and absence of hassles
      3. interaction fairness — customers expect to be treated politely, with care and honesty. This form of fairness can dominate all the others

      Describe an instance of service failure (or less-than-desirable service) that you have either experienced or observed. Analyze the elements of service failure and the effects of any efforts made by the organization at service recovery. What did the customer (or you) do as a result of the service failure (if you know)? If you don’t know, what would you have done in the customer’s place? How does (or will) the customer’s actions affect the organization in the future, in your opinion? Use the scenario that you have described to build a plan for service recovery for the organization concerned.


      Read the materials and answer the questions to the best of your ability.



       There is a process called service blueprinting, a concept that is interesting and valuable and can be usefully applied to a library or other information service agency. The service blueprint is a picture or map that portrays the service from a variety of perspectives so that all the different people involved in can understand and deal with it objectively. For example, from the employee perspective there is a process , part of which is not visible to the customer and part of which is; there are the points of contact where the employee (or the system) and the customer come in contact; and there is the evidence that the customer sees and from which he/she draws inferences about the quality of service provided.

      To create a blueprint, customer actions are charted, that is, the steps, choices, activities, and interactions that the customer performs in the process of purchasing (or accessing) a service, consuming it (perhaps also in the process co-producing it), and evaluating the service result. For example, for a customer to find a book to read, he/she must first decide to borrow it from the public library, then he/she must get to the library (by car, on foot or on public transport), then select a book by using the various mechanisms the library makes available (catalog, book lists, displays, recommendations, etc.), locate the book, then check the book out (might entail registering as a borrower), receive some indication of the date it will be due, and leave.

      Paralleling the customer actions are two areas of contact employee actions. Some are visible to the customer and can be called the Onstage Actions ; others are behind the scenes to support the onstage activities; these are the Backstage Actions . Onstage are the welcoming reception (or lack thereof), possibly an interview to orient or to recommend a title, the interaction at the card catalog and in the stacks, the transaction interaction at the circulation desk (wanding, stamping, etc.) Behind the scenes (backstage) are all the work the library staff has done to prepare for this interaction — creating the catalog, organizing and maintaining the book stacks, training the circulation staff, making sure the customer’s file is available (or creating a new file), preparing the book for checkout (ownership stamp, call number, date due slip). etc.

      Finally there are the support processes These are the internal services, steps, and interactions that take place to support the contact employees in delivering the service. For example, the catalog update, the design and implementation of the circulation system, the acquisition, processing, and shelving of books.

      Many organizations create process flow diagrams (a type of blueprint), especially of technical services department or they perform systems analyses in preparation for a change in work flow, but few of these techniques include the customers and their views of the service process.

      Some important action areas or zones to consider are:

      • the line of interaction , that is the line between the customer and the organization and the direct interactions that take place across it;
      • the line of visibility , the line that separates all the service activities that are visible to the customer from those that are not visible. The visible evidence of the service is what the customer uses to judge the quality of the service;
      • the line of internal interaction that separates the contact employee activities from those of other service support activities and people.

      In a service blueprint any physical evidence of the service is listed above the point of contact.

      For this exercise, choose a service offered by a library or information agency that you are familiar with and try to create a blueprint. You may have to imagine some of the systems and services that take place backstage.


      Read the materials and answer the questions to the best of your ability.



       The importance of customers in successful service delivery is obvious if one thinks of the service delivery performance as a form of drama. The drama metaphor suggests the reciprocal, interactive roles of employees (actors) and customers (audience) in creating the service experience. The service actors and audience are surrounded by the stage setting or the service space. Because the customer receiving the service participates in the delivery process, he/she can contribute to a service gap (not delivering according to service standards) by appropriate (or inappropriate) behavior.

      The level of customer participation varies across services. In some cases ( low level of participation ) all that is required is the customer’s physical presence with the employees doing all the work (for example, in the case of a symphony concert). The products are standardized and the service is provided whether or not any customer is present. In other cases ( moderate level of participation ), the customer must take action or provide some kind of information in order for the service to be delivered (for example, for a tax preparer to prepare your taxes, you must first provide a lot of information and gather and organize a lot of material that you provide physically to the tax preparer). In still other cases ( high level of participation ) the customer co creates the services. The active customer participation guides the customer service (as in the provision of reference services). The service cannot be created apart from the customer’s active decision and active participation.

      Consider three services offered by a library or information agency of your choice and analyze each one culminating in a judgment of what you perceive to be the level of customer participation involved in each of these services. For the service that requires the highest level of customer involvement, describe the technical and interpersonal contributions the customer can make to create a satisfying service delivery situation. Can/does the library assist the customer in moderate or high level situations to make the customer contribution more effective?

  • Chapter 7

    Organizations and Organizational Culture

  • Chapter 8

    The Fundamentals of Organization: Specialization and Coordination

  • Chapter 9

    Designing Adaptive Organizational Structures

  • Chapter 10

    Staffing the Library


    Web Resources

  • Chapter 11

    The Human Resources Functions in the Library

  • Chapter 12

    Other Issues in Human Resource Management

  • Chapter 13

    Motivation in the Workplace

  • Chapter 14

    Organizational Leadership




      Read the materials and write two or three paragraphs about what you learned from these tests. What is your “type”? What is your preferred learning style? Did anything in the results surprise you? Do you think these types of tests are helpful in the workplace?


      Everyone working in an organization differs in many ways and these differences affect how workers interpret an assignment, how they want to be motivated, how they perform in groups, and how they relate to their co-workers. Because management always involves working with other people, all managers and all employees would be wise to follow the old Greek adage: “Know thyself.” Many organizations attempt to help people learn more about themselves as well as about other people with whom they must develop a working relationship. There are a number of these psychological instruments available; you might want to take several that are available online. First, try the questions found at . This is a “Jungian” style instrument similar to the Myers-Briggs test, which many of you may have already taken. If you have taken the Myers-Briggs, it will be interesting to see how similar your scores on the two exams are. Next, take an on-line learning styles instrument that will help categorize you as a visual, aural, read-write, or kinesthetic learner. This test can be found at and there is additional information available on that site about the preferences of each type of learner. Finally take a test that measures the “Big Five” –the personality traits that are considered most fundamental by most

      These tests are certainly not perfect measures but they give you a place to begin to learn about your own personality and preferences.

  • Chapter 15

    Professional Ethics

  • Chapter 16

    Organizational Communication

  • Chapter 17

    Empowering Employees through the Use of Teams




      This exercise or one of its many variations is often used to demonstrate the differences between individual and group decision making.


      Click to participate in an online version of The NASA Exercise: Lost on the Moon.

  • Chapter 18

    Evaluating Organizational Performance

  • Chapter 19

    Library Finance and Budgets

  • Chapter 20

    Library Fundraising (Development) and Grant Writing

  • Chapter 21

    Managers: The Next Generation




      Please see the handout called “Management Portfolios” for a PDF that includes all of these management activities along with explanatory material about developing a management portfolio.


      Management Portfolio Item 1

      Organizational Paper

      Organizations now play a very important role in most people’s work life. In the past 200 years, the United States has changed from a country where almost all workers were self employed either as farmers or independent craftspeople to one in which almost every worker is employed by an organization. Today most people spend their entire work life as one employee among many working in an organization. The purpose of this entry in your Management Portfolio is to help you think about an organization in managerial terms.

      For this paper you are to select a library or information agency or a corporation that you are somewhat familiar with and to describe it in 3-5 double-spaced pages. To provide continuity in the Management Portfolio this organization will be used as the context for many of the later entries. If you have worked in an organization in the past or are working in one in the present, that organization might be a good choice for you. However, you don’t need to have actually worked in an organization to be familiar with it, so you can choose any organization that you wish for this exercise.

      Organizations can be described in many ways. To help you start your analysis of the organization you have chosen, I have posed some questions below. You don’t have to answer each question, and there may well be other aspects of your organization that you wish to describe.

      • Provide the full name of the organization. If it is a part of a larger organization, provide the name of the larger organization and describe how the smaller unit fits within the larger one.
        · Where is the organization located? Where is work performed? Sometimes the answer to these two questions is different, sometimes the same.
        · What is unique or distinctive about this organization? Does it have a mission statement or a statement of purpose? If so, what is it?
        · How large is the organization you selected? You can describe the size of an organization by the amount of space it occupies, by the number of staff it has, by the amount of its budget, by the number of clientele it serves. Some measures are more useful for particular purposes. For this exercise, choose any measure you like. You may have to estimate size. Be as accurate as you can.
        · How old is your organization? Does it have a long history and tradition or is it a relatively young organization?
        · What services and/or products does it offer? Are these products/services offered for a fee or free to everyone or only to a certain class of clients? How is it organized? Does it have a flat structure with few layers of management or is it hierarchical with an organization chart with many layers? Has it gone through any sort of reorganization or reengineering in the recent past?
        · Is the organization a public or a private agency, or does it have elements of both?
        · Who are the consumers or users of the organization’s products and services? Often clients (users, patrons, customers, whatever term you choose) can be separated into various categories. For example in a university environment, clientele are often separated into faculty, students, and staff. Sometimes each of these categories is further separated as well. Some organizations think of primary and secondary client groups. You may wish to comment about this aspect for your organization.
        · Who are the organization’s competitors? How do you think competition should be defined for the organization? Would you describe the environment in which the organization operates as stable or rapidly changing? Responsive and supportive or hostile?
        · Would you describe your organization’s technical system (how work gets done) as “craft-like” so that responses are individualized and unique to each client, or is it more “mass market oriented” and machine-like so that each client is treated the same and services and products are relatively uniform, or would you characterize the technical system as a process in which items (or people) flow through the organization and are acted upon as they move through (for example, like a university)?
        · What kinds of people work in the organization? What skills, knowledge, educational credentials, or experience do people need in order to work in the organization? Are most of the workers recruited locally or does the organization recruit certain workers at a national level? Are there a lot of different categories of people or do most of the people in the organization have a similar knowledge and skill set? Would you characterize the dominant group as professionals, technicians, scientists, humanists, managers, or how?
        · Does the organization offer training to its human resources? How are newly hired people introduced to the agency? Are there opportunities for staff to continue their learning through staff development offerings or on the job training?
        · Is the organization hierarchical in nature so that it is clear who works for whom or is it flatter and more collegial so that people work together in teams?
        · Are the rules and policies of the organization written down and publicly available or is the atmosphere more informal?
        · Are people paid a salary, or on an hourly basis? Are there contract employees? Are hours of work flexible or fixed? Are the people paid a rate that is competitive with others in the same industry or location?
        · What kind of reward system is there? Is the morale within the organization high? Are people who work there generally satisfied?
        · Why did you choose this organization? Is it one you have worked in? Do you plan (or hope) to work in a similar organization some day?



      Management Portfolio Item 2

      Interview a Manager

      This document will report the results of your interview with a manager. If you know one who works in the organization you described in your first management portfolio item that would be ideal. If you are not able to talk to someone in that organization talk to one in another organization. Either interview the manager at their workplace or perhaps offer to take him/her out for coffee or lunch. Ask the person you interview questions that will help you get an insight into what managers actually do and what you should be doing to prepare yourself to be one. What are the most difficult parts of being a manager? The most frustrating? The most rewarding? What has this person learned from being a manager? How to they keep up-to-date? What ethical dilemmas have they faced? What difficult decisions have they had to make? How do they make decisions? What is his/her management style? What career advice could they offer you? These are some possible questions but add your own and reshape the ones above if you wish. After the interview write a summary of what you learned (800-1000 words).A bit of advice: It is always wise to make an interview appointment with the manager well ahead of the time you would to speak with him/her and writing a thank you note afterwards is always a nice touch.


      Management Portfolio Item 3

      Stakeholder Analysis

      This part of your management portfolio will give you the chance to analyze in a bit more depth one aspect of the organization you chose for the first assignment. Management systems theory tells us that all organizations are affected by both internal and external factors. The national economic conditions, the availability of skilled labor, and even weather conditions have an impact upon an organization. In addition to the general forces that affect all organizations, each organization has specific groups that can exert influence upon that particular organization. One of these groups is an organization’s “stakeholders.” The so-called stakeholders group in an interesting one because it consists of a mix of entities (individuals, associations, etc.) with some who are external to the organization and some who are internal. As the name implies, a stakeholder is someone or some group who has an interest in what happens in a specific organization and who is affected by that organization. If we were making a list of the stakeholders of your ILS School included in the list would be students, staff, faculty, the university administration, employees, alumni, the American Library Association, research sponsors, donors, etc. So the list of stakeholders for any organization is apt to be numerous and varied.

      Think about the stakeholders of the organization you described in your first portfolio assignment. You should be able to think of at least 8-10. If you chose a subunit of a larger organization, you will likely want to focus upon the overall organization for this analysis. Make a list of these stakeholders and briefly describe them. Then, describe as best you can the influence that each stakeholder group has and pressures they might exert. Some questions you might want to consider in doing your analysis are: On what issues would particular stakeholders want to have influence? Which stakeholders have contradictory or conflicting interests and which have interests that might work together? How much power do you think each of these stakeholders has over your organization? Can you cite any examples when stakeholders interests have caused organizational change? Have there ever been instances you can think of that stakeholders perhaps exerted undue or unnecessary influence upon the organization? What can managers do to ensure that a balance is maintained between the interests of individual stakeholders and the interest of the organization as a whole? Does the organization have any specific means of communicating with its stakeholders? Does the organization’s management do a good, adequate, or inadequate job of dealing with the various stakeholder groups? Can you suggest any improvements the organization might make in dealing with stakeholder groups? Your stakeholder analysis should be no more than 1000 words in length.


      Management Portfolio Item 4

      Time Management

      Richard Daft states that one of “the most interesting findings about managerial activities is how busy managers are and how hectic the average workday can be.” Daft also stresses that managerial work is characterized by variety, fragmentation, and brevity and that managers perform a great deal of work at an unrelenting pace. Those same statements could be applied to the life of the average graduate student who is often trying to balance school, family and work demands at the same time.

      One of the tasks that effective managers learn early is how to manage their time. The first step in becoming more efficient in time management is to actually analyze how you spend your time. For this entry in your Management Portfolio, I would like you to keep a detailed log of your time for three “typical” days–I would imagine for most of you that would mean three days between Monday through Friday but if you want to use one weekend day that is fine. During those three days record your major activities (for example, work, study, sports, recreation, sleep, family, etc.). See below for what a typical entry might look like. When you have your record in hand, combine all the times spent on these activities and then write a brief report (500-750 words) about what you discover. Are there major activities missing that you wish you had more time for? Did you uncover any surprises about how you spend your time? Can you think of any improvements in how you are managing your time? What would those improvements be? Overall would you judge that you manage your own time as effectively as you could .Turn in your essay, and a pie chart depicting the major categories of how you spend you time. You don’t need to turn in your time record.

      Example of a Time Log

      8:00-8:30 Bus to Campus
      8:30-9:00 Coffee and read the Newspaper
      9:00-11:00 Class
      11:00-12:00 Study in Library
      12:00-1:00 Lunch
      1:00-5:00 Work


      Management Portfolio Item 5

      Your Board of Directors and Managerial Philosophy*

      All good managers have a philosophy of management that guides them in making managerial decisions. In addition, many managers try to pattern their actions after those of people they admire and wish to emulate. After reflecting on your own work experiences and the variety of people with whom you’ve worked:

      1. pick a personal board of directors –a small set of individuals whose life and leadership you would like to emulate. (You don’t have to have known all of these personally and they may be either historical or contemporary figures. But, there should be no more than ten individuals on your board.). Provide a sentence or two about each about why you would want them to be on your personal board of directors. Then,
      2. write your management credo –a set of eight or more principles or values which you want to characterize your life as a manager. Both your board and your credo should be selected carefully. Both should be durable so you could take them with you when you change positions or organizations.

      * This exercise is adapted with permission from one used by Professor Monty Lynn in his course, Leading and Management , at Abilene Christian University in Abilene, Texas.


      Management Portfolio Item 6

      Cover Letter and Resume

      Think about the type of job you would like to have for your first position after you graduate. Consider your strengths, weaknesses, skills, experiences, interests, and values as they relate to your career plans. Consider geographic preferences and restrictions. Ideally, before you apply for any job you need to “know yourself.” Then look at the jobs listed on various ILS job lists or in the classified ads in a newspaper or a periodical to find either a specific job you actually want to apply for (if you are near graduation) or a job of the type you would like to have when you graduate. This should be a position for which you feel that you are qualified on the basis of your education and your experience. Write a cover letter and a resume for that specific position.

      One of the most important parts of getting a job is composing a cover letter and a resume that will be impressive enough to have your application seriously considered. There are estimates that an employer spends an average of 15 to 20 seconds scanning a resume so it is critical to make a good first impression. There are many sources you may want to refer to for help in writing a good resume and cover letter. Some sources are available online—for instance information about cover letters and resumes can be seen at There are also many books available on the topic of writing good resumes and cover letters in the campus library or in bookstores.

      Optional: When you go for an interview you usually face a series of tough interview questions. Assume you have gotten through the initial screening for the job you have applied for and have been invited for an on-site interview. To find how well you might answer some classic interview questions, go to Business Insider’s article “19 Interview Questions That Are Designed to Trick You for some classic questions and advice on how to answer them.

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